P285-LTPP0285107250JCP-2With a continued focus on positioning Cini-Little International, Inc. to capture an even larger share of the market, the firm has named Theodore Farrand, FCSI, as a Director of MAS (Management Advisory Services). The news was announced after the firm’s quarterly Board of Directors Meeting in March by William V. Eaton, FFCSI, Chairman of Cini-Little International, Inc.

Ted Farrand brings more than 30 years of experience in the planning and execution of innovative solutions for our clients. In his new role Farrand will be responsible for directing the growth strategy for the firm’s MAS practice, leading and growing a world class consulting team, building relationships with clients and providing project leadership.

“I’m looking forward to advancing excellence in Management Advisory Services at Cini-Little. I believe properly planned food and beverage operations establish a sense of community in a building and encourages communication, collaboration and solidifies relationships,” said Farrand.

Richard Eisenbarth, FCSI, succeeds Farrand as President & COO of Cini-Little International, Inc.

“Ted brings outstanding experience and qualifications to this role at a time when we are seeking to lead an unprecedented transformation to enhance the value of our Management Advisory Services and continue to raise the bar and drive innovation throughout our practice,” said Eisenbarth.

Ted has experience providing visioning, master planning, feasibility studies, benchmarking, operator selection and optimization studies across multiple market segments including corporate, healthcare, and higher ed. He has helped guide the firm’s portfolio and unique forward thinking approach to foodservice, laundry and waste management consulting services.

“There’s no better person than Ted to take the reins of our MAS practice,” shared Bill Eaton, “having served as President & COO, Ted has a deep knowledge of client issues; he innately understands the critical role we, through our Management Advisory Services, must play in furthering our clients’ success, while providing clear, actionable insight and guidance to clients.”


DSC_0407E copy (2)Richard Eisenbarth, FCSI, has been named President & COO of Cini-Little International, Inc., a foodservice, laundry and waste management consulting firm with global reach.  The news was announced after the firm’s quarterly Board of Directors Meeting in March by William V. Eaton, FFCSI, Chairman of Cini-Little International, Inc.

Eisenbarth has worked with Cini-Little for over 30 years and most recently served as Director of Design where he oversaw projects across Cini-Little’s network of regional offices. In his new role, Eisenbarth will work closely with executive team members to further grow the firm’s position as a leader in the industry by maintaining a presence in prospering markets, strengthening relationships with key clients and expanding the company’s portfolio of cutting edge, high profile projects.

“Cini-Little has a long history of strong leadership, and I look forward to building on this tradition to lead our company to the next level.  This role also brings tremendous opportunity to grow our unique approach and continue to provide our clients with creative and responsive solutions,” said Eisenbarth.

Theodore Farrand, FCSI, who preceded Eisenbarth as President & COO of Cini-Little International, Inc., will assume the position of Director of MAS (Management Advisory Services). Farrand will be instrumental in growing the company’s MAS practice.

“Ted has been an outstanding mentor and partner; succeeding him as president is the natural evolution of that partnership,” said Eisenbarth.

“Dick’s leadership will take our practice to the next level as we continue to provide world-class, award-winning designs and programs for our clients,” said Ted Farrand.  “Our long-standing professional relationship is built on trust and mutual admiration, and as Director of MAS, I look forward to working with him to expand the firm’s portfolio and grow our unique approach to foodservice, laundry and waste management consulting services.”

Dick provides strong leadership through his high standards for design excellence combined with his many years of working closely with our clients to make their visions possible.

“Dick’s longevity with the firm has guided us to past successes that will help shape our future as a company,” said Eaton. “I have the utmost confidence in him to take this opportunity and build it into another successful chapter for Cini-Little by continually inspiring our clients and employees.”

By:  Adam Dean
Associate/Management Advisory Services – Washington DC Office

Got M 1   The advent of food trucks likely surprised many when it defied the fad label and established itself as a legitimate niche in the food and beverage industry. For guests, it created a completely unique experience and access to quality foods at reasonable prices. For food truck operators it offered less financial burden and overhead compared to a traditional brick and mortar. In turn it afforded operators an opportunity to take greater risks with their cuisine. Guests have learned they can find quality foods from stimulating concepts beyond the confines of four brick walls.

For the most part food trucks focus their menus toward pedestrian friendly “eat with your hands” food. While the cuisine can be original and interesting, it is still limited. Successful trucks can go on to grow into restaurants but ultimately they are few and far between. The movement however has not just been limited to food trucks and guests are not the only ones to have taken note of their popularity.

Food halls or premium food courts are riding the coat tails of the movement food trucks have started and are setting up Union M 1to become the next big thing. You may have already seen one, and if you haven’t you probably will. Locations like Gotham West Market in New York and Union Market in Washington D.C. are popping up in major cities across the nation. It blends the comfort of a restaurant with the excitement and variety of food trucks. A happy median between the old school and new. Each location is different from the next but the essence of the concept remains the same: several food stalls with communal seating as diverse as the food stalls themselves. Often the food stalls have little to no back of house and a communal kitchen is used by all operators for receiving, storing (each have secured storage), food preparation, and ware wash. Leases can be arranged for short and long terms. The significance of this is that it creates a wheel house for chefs and emerging concepts. It ensures that the location will always be fresh, new, and vibrant.

The influence of food halls is reaching beyond the public domain. Colleges have been transforming their dining halls and food courts into “destinations”. They emulate food halls and even incorporate local food trucks in an effort to create the atmosphere that students are seeking.

Got M 2In the corporate world, companies are recognizing the benefit food service can bring to enhance their culture. Food service has been progressively evolving from necessity towards amenity. Dining rooms are becoming multi-functional rooms encouraging socializing, impromptu meetings, and alternate work spaces. Requests for unique servery layouts that break from the traditional formats are becoming more the norm.

Major food service operators are recognizing the change in demand as well. Menus are beginning to offer what you might find in a food hall or from a food truck; specials that run gourmet fries with different seasonings and sauces or even a station devoted to meatballs from around the world. Servery stations are re-formatting their look to give character and personality to each spot as though they are business unto their own.

Got M 1Food trucks and food halls have made a wonderful contribution towards a much needed renaissance in the food and beverage industry. They have expanded guests’ palates and elevated their expectations. They have supported the effort to break away from the traditional style of food service. In doing so, it has helped push everyone on to the same boat paddling away from the dated serveries and cafeterias that haunt our dreams with rigid plastic chairs, sterile steel surfaces, and the stale gray meatloaf.

By:  Laura Lentz
Senior Associate/Project Manager – Washington, DC Office

A Raw diet is any diet that consists primarily of unheated food or food cooked to a temperature less than 104°F to 115°F.  The most well known of these is Veganism but there are many forms.  This blog takes a look at my journey to understand Raw Foodism and some of the things I discovered along the way.

My interest started with a client who asked us to design a Raw foods station.  As a foodservice design consultant, I figured success would mean working myself out of a job.  I spec cooking equipment for heaven’s sake, what I am going to give them, an empty counter with a refrigerator?  I knew there had to be more and while I had heard the terms before and am a little familiar, I couldn’t figure out how or why someone would want to take meat out of the equation, much less cooking!  Even I need a burger and fries every once in a while. 

 But through a friend I found a local D.C. dietician who offered a raw diet that seemed like something I could live with and was based on a cookbook by Trader Joe’s.   Most importantly, it was only seven days, and I figured I could tolerate just about anything for seven days.  So I went to the grocery store and loaded up on veggies and fruits (8 cucumbers, 5 lbs of carrots, seven large bags of greens and much more).

Day 1: It was the kick off, and I was excited.  I made my morning Green Apple Juice smoothie and packed my snacks for work including a Mango Salad with Corn and Chick Peas.  The day went by easily, mostly I spent the day raving about this new detox diet I was doing, but I really did have more energy and felt a little lighter.  Little did I know, day 2 was the hard day. . . .

Day 2: The article said you might get a headache and on day 2, I’ll admit, MY HEAD HURT.  But the morning shake was Carrot Cucumber and it was a delicious recipe that I immediately liked.  At dinner, I was struggling through the diet and was fighting to make myself eat the veggies on the list.  But I was feeling better and more energetic and loose.

Day 3: I researched to learn that Raw Foodies believe that if you don’t cook the food beyond a certain degree your body retains much more of the energy and nutrients.  Day 3 was proof of that.  I started the day with a Shamrock smoothie that was awesome. I had more energy all day, went for a 6-mile run and didn’t even eat all the food that day.  In fact, I hadn’t really been hungry once during the diet so far and had really liked a lot of the food choices.  Dinner was Veggie Papusas, which were a great menu item that tasted delicious.  I’ll say, not like authentic papusas but they were delicious.

Day 4: This was my first tough day really craving a burger and fries or some junk food. A lack of sugar was harder than I thought too.  I made it through the day and enjoyed a delicious dinner recipe of lentil stew.  Don’t let me neglect to mention the benefits of weight loss. By this time I was seeing results in the scale which helps keep me from that nagging sugar craving.  For a RAW foodie, you see, the sugar must only be natural “raw” sugar found in foods, and in the case of this diet, only before noon. 

Day 5 and Day 6 Continued with better eating and wonderful foods and recipes.  I had a wonderful Kaleidescope Bean salad that continues to be a favorite.  It was only flavored with small amounts of salt and pepper and a delicious vinegar (no olive oil).

Day 7: I’ll admit on my final day, I celebrated with a happy hour beer and a cheeseburger but this was a great seven days and I have more energy, feel lighter and have even lost a few pounds.

My search for exploring Raw Foodism has been enlightening and while I have only touched the tip of the iceberg, I have learned a lot.  The Raw food diet I tried was 80% Raw Food Consumption with 20% cooked food consumption but there are many other formats and diet patterns.  I have a pile of new recipes. 

In terms of foodservice design, mostly I’ll say that a well designed RAW food station has a few must haves: A top of the line juicer, a blender or two, if the facility is large enough, you could need as much as a cutter dicer, a rice cooker for each type of rice is recommended, likely a brown rice cooker and possibly a second for Quinoa or hard rice, lastly a vessel for holding soups warm like a lentil curry and vegetable stews.  It is likely obvious but you need many cutting boards and lots of refrigeration.  You may like to include a sushi refrigerator as well.

Because of the simple preparation, the beauty of a raw foods station is that it can be carved into an existing servery quite easily.  It works great as a feature display kitchen or flexible station because it requires very little equipment and no exhaust hoods.  If done well, this can become a whole feature station in itself with independent choices offering vegetarians and special diets something beyond the salad bar.  As a self serve feature, a grain bar can also provide a consistent offering at this station.  The key factor to success is to recognize that raw foodies are serious about nutrition.  Many Raw Foodies believe that the western diet does not include enough fresh foods, veggies and fruits and that maintaining a proper balanced diet is critical.  Any schools or programs that are looking to implement this type of menu option should contact a local dietician or culinary professional to ensure that the menu items are nutritionally balanced.

Currently, a number of Universities and Colleges offer Vegan/Vegetarian food options and stations.  Oklahoma City University, claims to be the first University to offer a full raw food station beginning in 2010.  I wouldn’t know whether this is a fad or a trend just yet but it certainly puts more awareness on healthy food options and is getting a lot of press.  With a growing population that has a number of food allergies and an awareness of many complications that bad food diets cause later in life, students today are searching for options and better decision making.  A raw food diet may be just what they need to implement a healthier diet.

By:  Nahum Goldberg, LEED AP
Senior Associate/Project Manager – San Francisco Office

Despite health concerns related to the consumption of fried foods, frying will still have its place on many restaurant and institutional menus, and most commercial kitchens are still being equipped with fryers.  Vegetable frying oil, after repeated exposure to heat and food elements in the fryer, degrades and must be exchanged for fresh oil. Proper handling and recycling of the used oil integrates sustainable values and good business practices since the used oil has considerable value to the burgeoning biodiesel industry. Additionally, how the operator handles used oil is critical to worker safety and to the overall cleanliness of the facility. 

Initially An Environmental Challenge
Spent cooking oil from fryers should never be poured down the sewer drain because it can solidify and clog sewer systems, causing huge costs for property owners and water districts.  Local and national laws and codes require that the oil be captured before entering the public sewer lines.  Oil that does get through pollutes waterways and clogs ground water absorption systems.

While not the main focus of this article, incidental spills and oily residue is often washed down the drain while cleaning the kitchen or processing food. As a result, in-line oil and grease interceptor tanks are used to collect the grease and oil before it hits the public sewer system.  Required in commercial food service facilities, such central grease capturing devices must be emptied regularly, and the oil must be disposed of properly by specialized service companies.  Installing these devices and contracting with removal vendors is a cost that must be borne by the owner or operator.

On the other hand, the disposal of fryer oil – initially seen as a cost of being environmentally responsible – has turned into a financial plus for operators. 

Waste Vegetable Oil – A Commodity With Increasing Value
As most operators/ managers know, waste vegetable oil has become a highly sought after, valued commodity. The value of the used oil fluctuates based on commodity prices for “yellow grease” and biofuels. One only needs to Google the words “stolen cooking oil” to see pages and pages of recent news reports on sophisticated oil theft operations all over the country – New York, Atlanta, Los Angeles to mention a few. This is no surprise since the value of biodiesel has risen from about nine cents per gallon ten years ago to well over $3 a gallon recently, in line with oil price increases in general.

National and regional oil collection companies actively are seeking new business and will compensate (rebate) for the used oil.  There are generally no collection equipment costs when food service operators enter into a contract with an oil collection service.  The collectors are eager to get the oil and make their profit from reselling or processing it. Contracts may contain variable pricing or may “lock in” to long-term prices, may depend on volume and quality of collected oil, and may be tied to the commodity price for “yellow grease”.  Some local companies encourage a donation program whereby operators can opt to give their proceeds to local schools and non-profits – or alternatively the operator can receive a quarterly check. As in any service or product offering, learning the local offerings, terms and contract details will prove valuable in negotiating the agreement with an oil collection firm.

What to Do With Fryer Oil??
Let’s discuss briefly some options for handling waste vegetable oils – and don’t forget – always check local building department and waste water district requirements for your area and application.

For the small establishment or caterer, even a few gallons of oil need to be handled properly. Once cooled, return to original packaging, seal well and label.  Seek a local recycler or disposal method compatible with local codes. Local waste districts will usually have drop off locations for residents. Regional processors such as Sirona Fuels in N. California or The Alternative Fuel Foundation in the Northeastern U.S. can provide you with locations for delivery, and in some cases will even pick up smaller quantities of oil. See links below for more info.

For small restaurants, with a low-to-mid volume of used oil, the best solution is to drain the cooled oil to a bucket and transfer either to the original containers or out to a 55 gallon drum in the dock area for collection. Drums are usually provided free of charge by the collector. A tremendous step up from schlepping buckets of oil around is to use an oil transport unit, available from the prominent fryer manufacturers, which includes a spill resistant tank and a pump for transfer from the fryer to the collection vessel.

For larger frying programs, such as an operator with several fryers and a mid-to-high volume of used oil, a direct plumbed oil transport system could be considered. This type of arrangement greatly improves workplace safety as it eliminates the handling of hot oil and prevents dangerous spills. Cleanliness is also enhanced and careless dripping and spills are prevented. Used for decades by most major fast food companies, we have found that institutional operators and facilities managers are generally pleased with the direct plumbed systems for the same reasons.

The direct plumbed system connects the collection tank, available in 100 – 300 gallon versions and located near the pickup or dock area, directly to the fryer or fryer battery. Keep in mind the fryers must have a pumped filter system with installed 3-way valve to pump oil out. Alternatively, there are other methods, such as a wall-mounted pump station adjacent to the fryer(s). The pump station usually includes a wand, which can be inserted into the fryer vat to pump out the used oil, transporting it directly through the pipes to the collection tank on the dock.  Coordination between fryer manufacturer, plumber and oil collection company is required for a properly installed system.  Check out the links below for more information and options.

Collection Tank Options
As mentioned above, various tanks such as the basic 55 gallon drum or a mobile +-100 gallon mobile tanks are usually offered at no charge by the oil collection companies who are eager to contract with operators. Frontline International and Darling/Cleanstar also sell the larger more sophisticated tanks for direct plumbed systems. Features include safety valve systems, fill gauges, overfill alarms, line heating systems and more. Darling recently introduced an indoor 200 gallon “BOSS spacesaver” oil collector. The 48” x 27” footprint unit combines functionality as an oil storage tank while supporting wire shelves from front mounted standards and is designed to accommodate small facilities who might not have the space for other methods. Links to several equipment suppliers’ websites can be found below.

To prevent the likelihood of oil reaching the ground water or sewer systems, local codes often require secondary containment systems for outdoor tanks or waste oil holding areas. Some tanks have integral dual wall containment. Used oil receptacles should generally be placed in covered areas with basins to capture spills or overruns. For smaller venues with limited space, this can be a major challenge. A plastic weather proof containment system designed for a 55 gallon drum is a low cost solution. A link to a manufacturer website is provided below. Always check with local authorities for requirements.

Whichever tank collection system is used, a collection truck will come periodically with suction equipment to remove the oil or they may switch out the smaller tanks or drums. Larger collection tanks can be plumbed to a convenient location where the collection truck’s suction hose can connect. Large collection tankers have suction capacity that allow emptying of the collection tanks in a matter of minutes.

Remember to get complete information about collection tank alternatives, location access requirements, and spill clean-up procedures before signing a collection company contract.

Onsite Biodiesel Processors and Oil Powered Generators
This year’s National Restaurant Association Show’s Kitchen Innovation winner in this area featured the Springboard Biodiesel Processor which produces high grade ASTM biodiesel in a small footprint fully automated process. For a larger facility this may be the way to go – efficiently transforming your used oil to fuel for your vehicles.

 The Vegawatt, an NRA Kitchen Innovation Award Winner from 2010, converts used oil to power and heating.

In principal these innovative technologies makes great sense, but should be looked at carefully to assure appropriate sizing per your oil usage, return on investment and equipment reliability references. See links below for more info.

What’s Next?
By saving waste vegetable oils and converting them to energy and fuel  – restaurants and other food service facilities take their efforts a step further – from saving energy to creating energy.  We will be looking forward to seeing further innovations in equipment, systems and operational practices that will encourage foodservice operators to generate renewable resources.

Links and Resources
The links below are examples relevant to the subject matter. Please note they are not meant to be comprehensive nor are we endorsing any suppliers.

 Calfog.org – Tips on cleaning and maintaining your grease interceptor http://www.calfog.org/docs/SJ_handouts.pdf 

USDA Weekly Yellow Grease Commodity Pricing Report (commodity pricing source) http://www.ams.usda.gov/mnreports/lswagenergy.pdf

 Waste Vegetable Oil Collection – Services and Equipment 

Alternative Fuel Foundation – N. Eastern U.S..  http://www.alternativefuelfoundation.org/

 Darling Industries – National http://www.darlingii.com/pdf/Grill Grease Management 6 11 08.pdf

 Frontline International – National – (Equipment Only) http://www.frontlineii.com/waste_oil_direct.html

 Sirona Fuels – N. California Area  http://www.sironafuels.com/recycle-your-cooking-oil/

 Yokayo Biofuels – N. California Area http://www.ybiofuels.org/ 


 Vegawatt – Cogeneration Device  http://www.vegawatt.com/

 Springboard Biodiesel – Biodiesel Processing Devices  http://www.springboardbiodiesel.com/

By:  Stuart Davis, LEED Green Associate
Senior Associate/Project Manager – Chicago Office

LED lighting presents an energy efficient option, but it may not be suitable for all areas of a foodservice operation.  With the long list of benefits that LED lighting provides, there are many situations where it is the best choice.  However, not all foodservice applications are created equal, and the pros and cons of all available lighting sources should be considered when determining the best option for each application.

What makes LED lighting a good choice?

  • It has a longer life – lasting 10 to 25 times longer than other bulbs (see footnote 1).  This can be ideal for maintaining lighting in relatively inaccessible locations or in operations where lighting is in use for long periods of time.
  • It has lower heat emissions – 5 times less than an incandescent bulb of the same wattage (see footnote 2).  LED lighting can be beneficial when used in areas where heat can compromise the surrounding areas, such as refrigerated display cases.
  • It has a lower operating cost, which becomes very important considering that lighting represents approximately 11% of a restaurant’s energy bill and 40% of energy usage in a commercial building.
  • It is environmentally friendly (no mercury, and in some cases, lead-free).
  • It turns on instantly.  This can be a valuable asset for walk-in refrigerators and freezers, where it is necessary to get in and out of the walk-in as efficiently as possible.
  • Lower temperatures increase light output and efficiency, also making it a good option for walk-in refrigerators and freezers.
  • It has more design options, offering greater flexibility. 

Where does LED lighting fall short?

  • A lack of standardization within the industry causes differences in quality.  Even products within the same manufacturer’s batch can vary in light output and color temperature.
  • It is expensive.  Average retail cost of a 60-watt incandescent is $1.25, compared to $35.95 for an equivalent LED bulb (see footnote 3).
  • Color appearance can lack quality and consistency.  Color appearance is measured by correlated color temperature (CCT) on the Kelvin (K) scale. For most interior lighting applications, warm white (2700K to 3000K) and in some cases neutral white (3500K to 4000K) light is appropriate. Bulbs with a CCT higher than 3000K begin to develop a bluish appearance and may not be appropriate for many foodservice applications.  Even high-quality LED lights can develop a drift in color temperature shifting from a natural light to a bluish color in just 1 to 2 years’ time.
  • LED bulbs with a higher color temperature than 2700 Kelvin can cause glare.
  • It cannot produce a “range” of color when dimmed.  Incandescent light becomes warmer in color when dimmed, whereas LED light produces the same white output.

 Where should foodservice operations use careful consideration when specifying LED lighting?

  • Refrigerated cases.  The color temperature of the light should be specified properly to compliment the contents of the case.  Using no higher than 2700 Kelvin lamping is essential, as higher color temperatures can render food unappetizing.
  • Areas that require dimming.  If an appropriate range of color or consistency cannot be achieved with LED lighting, other lighting options should be considered.  Careful consideration should also be applied to the transition between display kitchens and the surrounding dining area. Theatrical gels can be used for modifying the range of color in LED lighting in a dining area, but they do not meet the health code requirements for display kitchens.
  • When cost is a factor.  Depending on the size of the project, the upfront cost of LED lighting may be prohibitive.

 With technological advancements and more standardization, the cost and quality of LED lighting will hopefully improve and foodservice consultants can increase its use.  In the meantime, consultants can demand to see a sample of the LED product specified in use, in order to determine if it will be adequate for the application.  Consultants should not assume that a 2700 Kelvin bulb will be appropriate for an application without testing it, as they are not consistent from manufacturer to manufacturer.

Getting involved and working together with the lighting consultants and architects on each project will ensure the lighting installations offer the best possible experience for the client and the consumer.


(1)  http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/lighting_daylighting/index.cfm/mytopic=11978#q11
(2)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode
(3)  http://eartheasy.com/live_led_bulbs_comparison.html#a

By:  Armand D. Iaia, FCSI
Regional Manager – Chicago Office

One of the things that many architects and interior designers don’t consider when they are planning foodservice facilities is the staff count and associated cost of labor that will be needed to run the facility they are designing.  While large cafeteria facilities typically generate enough cash flow that they can afford operating staff as required, smaller facilities are a different issue. 

If smaller facilities have stations too spread out or situated out of the way so that it requires one or more dedicated person to run each station, it can doom a facility before it even has a chance to get on its feet.    Smaller facilities need to have stations that are connected so that when the operation is not running at full tilt, the whole place can be run by a single person.   This is especially true for small cafeteria serveries and coffee and snack bars usually found in healthcare, universities, offices and hotel lobbies. 

But it’s not just about the size of the facility.  Even larger facilities have slower periods.  The desire to provide customer service and convenience in the slower evening and weekend periods has to be balanced with the need to keep operational costs low.  Consider stations with flexibility in mind, not just stations in a row.  For example….a grill that doubles as a deli or maybe an international (Made To Order) station, or a deli that doubles as a grab & go by using convertible   sneeze guards.  This way, the overall footprint can be kept smaller and labor costs can be minimized during slow periods.

Cashiering is another important factor to consider in small facilities or large facilities with slow periods.  A separate remote cashier station staffed by a cashier is great for peak traffic flows but the labor cost cannot be justified when traffic count is low.  A separate cash register should be on the primary counter so the staff person there can serve and handle the cashiering function.  If there is no room there, a separate mobile cashier stand should be available to be wheeled into place next to the primary counter.  This secondary cash register needs to be located in a position with a good sight line to the entire facility, especially the entrance.  This allows a single person to run the operation while facilitating good customer service and proper security protocols that reduce the potential for theft.

While labor costs can and do vary quite a bit from place to place in North America, U.S. minimum wages (currently $7.25/hr and above, depending on state) plus any benefits that may be required make it important that small facilities keep labor to 33-35% of total sales (depending on sector).  Too high a labor cost or too much theft will sink a small facility that would otherwise be a great convenience to patrons.

Consider also the labor costs associated with cleaning.  More space means more space to clean and typically higher labor costs.  Along those same lines, china and flatware means a dishroom and the labor costs associated with that.  Consider whether disposable wares make financial sense for small facilities or during slow periods.  Balance this with how it fits with your facility’s mission of environmental responsibility.

Regardless of size, all facilities should be designed with the peaks and valleys of customer demand in mind.   The design can either allow or constrain the operation’s flexibility, and in turn its ability to provide good customer service within acceptable operating costs.